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NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund records, 1915-1968

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Index of Legal Cases by Category and State
The Truman administration adopted a policy in 1948 of "equality of treatment and opportunity" in a plan which called for racial integration of the United States armed forces by 1954. The Korean War accelerated the process so that integration was to be implemented by 1952. However, the NAACP continued to receive and investigate complaints of bias relating to assignments, promotion, discipline, or the administration of military justice. Furthermore, integration was much slower in reserve units, and few African Americans received Reserve Officer Training Corps scholarship awards. Finally, the fund challenged lingering segregation in schools, housing, and other collateral activities on military bases.
Burns v. Wilson, 1952
New York
Lawton v. Dewey, undated
Tomlinson v. Selective Serv. Draft Bd., 1948
Korean and World War II court martial records, 1943-1952
By 1960, court cases and integration efforts were sometimes accompanied by forms of social protest such as sit-ins and group marches. Demonstrators were often arrested for breach of peace or trespassing and some were defended by the fund.
Alabama v. Allen, 1964-1965
Alabama v. Gray, 1964
Alabama v. Hanson, 1963
Alabama v. Robinson, 1963
Banks v. Alabama, 1963-1964
Carter v. City of Birmingham, 1965
Clemons v. Alabama, 1964
Cruikshank v. Alabama, 1964
Fowlkes v. Alabama, 1964
Johnson v. Alabama, 1964
Shelton v. Alabama, 1964
Smith v. Alabama, 1963 1964
Thomas v. City of Birmingham, 1963
Webster v. City of Birmingham, 1963-1965
Hughes v. Lucky Stores, Inc., 1948
Byrd v. City of New Orleans, 1948
Diamond v. Louisiana, 1962-1964
Maryland v. Askin, 1948
North Carolina
Avent v. North Carolina, 1962
North Carolina v. Williams, 1960
South Carolina
City of Darlington v. Stanley, 1960-1961
The fund litigated cases in which a defendant claimed denial of due process because of racial discrimination. Usually these cases raised questions about jury selection, coerced confessions, competent legal representation, and unfair sentencing. Some cases involved lynchings; others concerned police misconduct and racial segregation in prisons.
Alabama v. Fikes, 1953
Arrington v. Alabama, 1949-1950
Fikes v. Alabama, 1953-1956
Hamilton v. Alabama, 1964
Huff v. Alabama, 1957
Middlebrooks v. City of Birmingham, 1964
Reeves v. Alabama, 1953-1957
Civil Rights Congress of the City and County of San Francisco v. Warren, 1950
Hardyman v. Collins, 1950
In re Middlebrooks, undated
Nichols v. McGee, 1957
Connecticut v. Higgs, 1953-1955
United States ex rel. Rogers v. Cummings, 1956
Florida v. Jordan, 1951
Furlow v. Florida, 1965
Irvin v. Florida, 1953
Shepherd v. Florida, 1950-1952
Georgia v. Henderson, 1950
Georgia v. Ingram, 1948
Georgia v. Walker, 1966
Griffin v. Georgia, 1951
Ingram v. Georgia, 1948
Jones v. Balkcom, 1953
Mosley v. Georgia, 1955
Whitus v. Georgia, 1961
Worthy v. Foster, 1948
Illinois v. Atkins, 1954
Illinois v. DeRose, 1951
Williams v. Illinois, 1951
Iowa ex rel. Hooper v. Bennett, 1959-1960
Guice v. Mayeaux, 1954
Leib v. O'Neal, 1954
Adams v. Maryland, 1953
Clark v. Michigan, 1956
Hawkins v. Mississippi, 1955
Johnson v. Mississippi, 1954-1955
Kennard v. Mississippi, 1961-1963
Mississippi v. Johnson, 1954
Robinson v. Mississippi, 1955
United States ex rel. Goldsby v. Wiggins, 1957
New Jersey
Dukes v. Hanna, 1952-1954
New Jersey v. Lewis; New Jersey v. Parker, 1948
Williams v. Glasco, 1949
New York
Capel v. Shaw, 1949
Cavers v. Grasheim, 1961
New York ex rel. Bracey v. Salter, 1949
New York v. Cornelius, 1955
New York v. Kelly, undated
Woodruff v. Village of Port Chester, 1951
North Carolina
Daniels v. North Carolina, 1949-1950
In re Ingram, 1953
North Carolina v. Jackson, 1954
North Carolina v. Simmons, 1951
Haley v. Ohio, 1948
United States v. Brandt, 1954
Brown v. Baldi, 1953-1954
Pennsylvania ex rel. Hatton v. Dye, 1953
Pennsylvania ex rel. Johnson v. Thomas, 1944
Barkley v. Tennessee, undated
Chandler v. Fretag, 1952
Hale v. Tennessee, 1955
Kennedy v. Tennessee, 1948
Tennessee v. Pillow, 1946
Cassell v. Texas, 1949
Hill v. Texas, 1942
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