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Personal Narratives of the Forced Removal and Incarceration of Japanese Americans During World War II: Veterans History Project (U.S.)

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ContainerContents
Series I: Formerly Incarcerated People (continued)
Warren Michio Tsuneishi Collection (continued)
Transcript, September 30, 2003 (continued)
Transcript of SR01-SR02
BOX-FOLDER MSS-179/4 Photographs, 1942-1943
1 folder
PH01: Tsuneishi (left) and a buddy from the Philippines, seated with tents and palm trees in background, Philippines, 1944.
PH02: Tsuneishi's mother and a friend holding service flags, each with four stars representing four sons in service, Heart Mountain Relocation Center, Wyoming [1942-1943].
PH03: A soldier standing outside a United Service Organizations (USO) building at Heart Mountain Relocation Center, Wyoming (1942-1943).
PH04: Two of Tsuneishi's colleagues at the Army Military Intelligence Service Language School, Camp Savage, Minnesota.
BOX CD/DVD-2 Computer file, 2004
1 optical disc
CF01: Electronic files of photographs PH01-PH04.
George Minoru Wakiji Collection
Collection ID: 27117
Digital content available
Wakiji was incarcerated at Santa Anita Assembly Center (Santa Anita Racetrack), California, and Gila River Relocation Center, Arizona, as a teenager. His family was released in July 1945. In 1950, he was drafted into the United States Army and served with H Company, 180th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division, at Fort Ord, California, and Chorwon, Korea. Following his service, he studied journalism, and later served in the Peace Corps in the Kingdom of Tonga.
BOX miniDV Video Interview with George Minoru Wakiji, May 13, 2004
102 minutes
MV01-MV02: Topics covered include: parents from Wakayama Prefecture; father came to United States for economic reasons; worked on railroad construction and nursery in Pasadena; started his own nursery business; mother came to United States in 1910; grew up in predominantly white neighborhood; attended Japanese language school; shocked by attack on Pearl Harbor; looked at forced remocal as adventure at age 13; evacuated with family to Santa Anita Assembly Center (Santa Anita Racetrack), California; slept in temporary barracks; father lost nursery; catching up on education due to poor schools in camp; family left detention center in July 1945; brother drafted and sent to Fort Snelling; drafted for Korea; basic training at Fort Ord, California; treated equally; leadership school; managed the football team; shipped to Japan and then Korea; assigned to 1st Cavalry Division; deployed near the DMZ; he looked like the enemy; recreation in Korea; went to Japan in 1952 for R&R; visited grandmother and relatives in Wakayama Prefecture; desegregation; two or three soldiers in his unit were illiterate; combat experiences; used GI Bill for education; returned to Pasadena; joined the Peace Corps after college; director for the Kingdom of Tonga; went to journalism school; 442nd Regimental Combat Team and Military Intelligence Service (MIS) proved the loyalty of Japanese Americans; executive director of the National Japanese American Memorial Foundation; Civil Liberties Act of 1988; President Gerald Ford's rescinding Executive Order 9066.
BOX-FOLDER MSS-887/1 Memoirs, undated
1 folder
MS01: Four-page memoir entitled, "Biography of George M. Wakiji."
BOX-FOLDER MSS-887/2 Military papers, September 16, 1952
1 folder
MS02: DD-214; Discharge Certificate
BOX-FOLDER MSS2674/1 Transcript, May 13, 2004
1 folder
MS03: Transcript of interview (MV01-MV02).
Jack Shuzo Yamabe collection
Collection ID: 30310
Digital content available
Yamabe was incarcerated at Santa Anita Assembly Center (Santa Anita Racetrack), California, and Rohwer Relocation Center, Arkansas, as a young man. In 1944, he was drafted into the United States Army, and served as a translator in Japan.
BOX miniDV Video Interview with Jack Shuzo Yamabe, July 18, 2005
18 minutes
MV01: Topics include: born in Hollywood, California; growing up in poor family; 21 years old during his stay in detention center; family didn’t lose land and/or business like a lot of Japanese; father was a WWI veteran; drafted in the Army in 1944 while he was living in Chicago, Illinois; incarcerated at Santa Anita Assembly Center (Santa Anita Racetrack), California, facility prior to being sent to Rohwer Relocation Center, Arkansas; working as a truck driver prior to moving into the detention center; dealing with racism; acceptance of Jewish community; viewing time stationed in Japan as a vacation since there were better translators residing there than veteran; helping with the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) in Japan; soldiers playing pranks on each other; getting the measles right before the Battle of the Bulge campaign; seeing General Douglas MacArthur frequently in Japan; working on taxis in Chicago, Illinois after the war; marrying his wife Sumi before military service; daughter and two grandchildren; becoming a teacher; regret of not having combat experience.
BOX-FOLDER MSS-973 Photograph, 2005
1 folder
PH01: Contemporary photo of Yamabe.
BOX CDDVD-23 Computer File, July 18, 2005
1 optical disc
CF01: Contains photograph (PH01) in JPEG format.
Frank Takaji Yamamoto Collection
Collection ID: 85536
Digital content available
Yamamoto was incarcerated at Manzanar Relocation Center, California, before being released and relocated to inland California in June 1943. He was drafted into the United States Army in May 1944, and after training at Fort McClellan, Alabama, attended the Military Intelligence Service Language School and served as a Japanese language instructor at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. While serving with the Military Intelligence Service in Tokyo, Japan, and Manila, Philippines, his duties included serving as an interpreter and translator during war crimes trials. He served in the Army Reserve from 1947-1968, and worked in civil service positions with Legal Section, Supreme Commander for Allied Powers, 500th Military Intelligence Group, United States Civil Service Administration of Ryukyu Islands, NISO Japan, and NISO Treasure Island, 12th Naval District.
BOX Hi-8 Video Interview with Frank Takaji Yamamoto, July 8, 2012
62 minutes
MV01: Topics covered include: family members that served in the military; knowledge of activities leading up to United States involvement in World War II; forced remocal to the Manzanar Relocation Center, California; living conditions at Manzanar; sentiments about being incarcerated; how he coped with time in the detention center; release from camp and forced reomoval to inland California in June 1943; education prior to service; work experience prior to military; family's reaction to being drafted; basic training at Fort McClellan, Alabama; duties and instruction received during basic training; treatment as a Japanese American soldier during basic training; how he coped during basic training; most difficult thing about basic training; living conditions and food while in basic training; sent to Military Intelligence Service Language School (MISLS) for training at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, in 1944; treatment as Japanese American soldier at Fort Snelling; classes other than language taken at Fort Snelling; assigned as Japanese language instructor at Fort Snelling in 1945; felt he was respected while an instructor; living conditions; most difficult thing about being an instructor; morale; opinions of fellow soldiers and superiors while at Fort Snelling; felt the language and military intelligence training was very good; sent to Tokyo, Japan, in April 1946; military specialty as a linguist; feelings and preparedness for assignment in the Pacific; no apprehension as a Japanese American serving in the Pacific; assigned to Manila, Philippines in May 1946; mission of military intelligence in Manila; feelings upon arrival in Philippines; duties in Manila as an interpreter and interrogator during the war crimes trials; methods used to interrogate Japanese Prisoners of War (POW); surprised reaction of prisoners of war (POWs) at his being a Japanese American soldier; duty to witness punishment and execution of Japanese prisoners of war (POWs); living conditions in Manila; felt he should have received additional training to live through the monsoons and bad weather conditions in Manila; poor morale while assigned in Manila due to bad weather; difficulties while assigned in Manila; next assigned to the Interpretive Services Headquarters in Tokyo in 1947; Team Captain in the Interpretive Services; Congressional Gold Medal; discharged from service on November 11, 1947 in Japan; feelings upon discharge from military; enlisted in the Army Reserve from 1947-1968; rationale for joining the Army Reserve; training and duties while in the Reserves; served in Reserves during the Korean and Vietnam Wars; never called to active duty; release from Army Reserves on April 2, 1968; education and degrees received after active duty service; post military career in civil service position with Legal Section, Supreme Commander for Allied Powers, 500th Military Intelligence Group, United States Civil Service Administration of Ryukyu Islands, NISO Japan, and NISO Treasure Island, 12th Naval District; most interesting aspects of post military career; views on toughest part of service; scariest moment in service and World War II; thoughts on whether sacrifice during World War II was justified; how military training and service impacted outlook on life; most memorable experience while serving on active duty; advice for future generations.
Ann Yamasaki Collection
Collection ID: 92981
Yamasaki was incarcerated at Marysville Assembly Center (a.k.a. Arboga Assembly Center), California, Tule Lake Relocation Center, California, and Heart Mountain Relocation Center, Wyoming.
BOX VHS-579 Video Interview with Ann Yamasaki, July 10, 1990
48 minutes
MV01: Topics covered include: early life; father worked in agriculture; parents were born in Japan; learning of the attack on Pearl Harbor; brother had been drafted in 1940; ordered to temporary incarceration camp, age 23; changes in attitudes towards Japanese Americans; travel to Marysville Assembly Center (a.k.a. Arboga Assembly Center), California; poor conditions in temporary incarceration camp; move to Tule Lake Relocation Center, California; loyalty questionnaire; brother's service, was not allowed to visit family in camp; mother injured in a landslide; mail censored; moved to Heart Mountain Relocation Center, Wyoming; worked in mess hall; found work in Chicago; differences between Tule Lake and Heart Mountain; redress movement; father's employer stored all of the family's belongings; parents' attitudes towards Japan; family's religion and cultural traditions; interactions with guards in detention centers; conditions in camps; daily life, recreation activities and work in camps; floods in Heart Mountain; visiting Japan in 1986; family in Japan; thoughts on atomic bombing; tradition of arranged marriage; meeting her husband; parents' marriage; family.
Series II: War Relocation Authority Civilian Employees & Military Support
Edna M. Becker Collection
Collection ID: 9653
Digital content available
Becker worked as a secretary for the federal government in several locations, including Heart Mountain Relocation Center, Wyoming.
BOX AC-206 Audio Interview with Edna M. Becker, February 25, 2003
21 minutes
SR01: Topics covered include: Education; Pearl Harbor; job at Heart Mountain Relocation Center, Wyoming; Casper with sister; marriage; D-Day celebration; after war; keeping in contact with relatives in the service; her husband's experience in war.
BOX-FOLDER MSS-00453 Photograph, February 25, 2003
1 folder
PH01: Contemporary photograph of Becker, Powell, Wyoming (2/25/2003).
Lewis J. Furlong Collection
Collection ID: 91002
Furlong was drafted into the Army in 1943, and served with I Company, 3rd Battalion, 275th Infantry Regiment, 70th Infantry Division as a M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) man. His service included guarding the Tule Lake Relocation Center, California, in 1944, before volunteering for the infantry and shipping out to the European Theater.
BOX CD/DVD-323 Video Interview with Lewis J. Furlong, May 4, 2013
59 minutes
MV01: Topics covered include: Early life and family; moving to Tipp City, Ohio; school; playing baseball; inducted in 1943; being assigned to guard Tule Lake Relocation Center, California; thoughts on reparations paid to Japanese Americans; interactions with Japanese Americans; volunteering for the infantry; transferring to Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri for more training; M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) man; leaving Boston, Massachusetts aboard a troop ship; nine days of travel; landing at Marseille, France, in mid-December 1944; staying overnight in a warehouse; leaving Marseille by train for eastern France; ambushed by Germans on first day; cold weather; going to a French warehouse but have to leave because of German fire; trapped on a hill for seven days without supplies; finally leaving the hills; treated for frost bite; slowly taking town by town; getting to the Siegfried line; war ending; sent to Frankfort, Germany to guard the train station; return to United States in March 1946 on the USS William and Mary; taking a passenger train from Pennsylvania to Dayton, Ohio; truck driver for a stone quarry; work for Tipp Lumber Company; handling feed for a feed company; marriage and family; working for A. O. Smith Corporation from 1952-1985 in the factory and in the office.
Alice A. Gapp Collection
Collection ID: 5887
Digital content available
Gapp worked as a librarian for the War Relocation Authority at Rohwer Relocation Center, Arkansas, from 1943-1944.
BOX AC-145 Audio Interview with Alice A. Gapp, October 14, 2002
24 minutes
SR01: Topics covered include: decided to be a librarian; bachelor's degree from Drexel Institute of Library Science in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; rural library WPA (Works Progress Administration) job in Lincoln, Nebraska; felt sad for Japanese Americans; wanted to make life better at a forced reomoval center; sent to Rohwer Relocation Center in McGehee, Arkansas; substitute science teacher; Japanese American staff; community librarian; living conditions at the Center; tar paper shacks; work friend; Suroto Hatanaka's wedding at Buddhist church; sang song in Japanese; Nisei spoke English; interviewed people to return to Japan via Gripsholm; typical day of work; books supplied by United States government; story hours; books in Japanese for Issei; twelve staff members; Nisei occupations, animator for Walt Disney; people were upset; family; Japanese language school for children; cultural life in camp; gift of painting; Noh drama; biweekly newspaper in English and Japanese; Earnest Teens of YWCA trip to Little Rock, Arkansas; allowed outside camp with Caucasian escort; went to Jerome, Arkansas, in dump truck with sumo wrestling group; living arrangements; food and gardening at the camp; separate mess hall for staff; no military except for guards; Protestant church; piano concerts; Buddhist services; Gapp could leave the base anytime; many Japanese Americans relocated to Chicago, Illinois; one year at the Center; left to get married to Frank, who she met while in Nebraska; kept in touch with friends; Japanese who went to Italy; reflections on time; party and gifts at the Center for her wedding.
Velma Berryman Kessel Collection
Collection ID: 9640
Digital content available
Kessel worked as a registered nurse at Heart Mountain Relocation Center, Wyoming, 1942-1945.
BOX AC-205 Audio Interview with Velma Berryman Kessel, June 19, 2002
33 minutes
SR01: Topics covered include: nurse at Heart Mountain Relocation Center, Wyoming; family history; duties and living arrangements; off duty hours and exercise; car wreck; found young girl at gate; favorite patient; 16 year old girl with tuberculosis; "soakers" maker; President Franklin Roosevelt's death; D-Day remembered; gas rations; family in service; marriage and war separation; reaction to work at camp; war time marriages; correspondence; medical changes; memorable moments and people; organizations; activities; impressions; Florida days; nursing 40 years.
BOX-FOLDER MSS-453 Photograph, June 19, 2002
1 folder
PH01: Contemporary photograph of Kessel, Powell, Wyoming (6/19/2002).
Edwin Isacce Morris Jr. Collection
Collection ID: 108611
Morris was drafted in 1942 and served with the 442nd Signal Heavy Construction Battalion (Aviation), 15th Signal Brigade, United States Army Air Forces. His service included working at Tule Lake Relocation Center, California.
BOX CD/DVD-514 Video Interview with Edwin Isacce Morris Jr., June 13, 2016
48 minutes
MV01: Topics covered include: Early life and family; parents were farmers; early years; recreation, cards, musicians in family; one room schoolhouse; drafted; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; boot camp in Atlantic City, New Jersey; barracks in hotel; KP duty; café in Philadelphia "had plates upside down from train soot;" advanced training at Camp Crowder, Missouri; installed communication lines at Hammer Field, California and Camp Pinedale, California; worked at Tule Lake Relocation Center, California; installed communication lines for Coast Guard in Wheeler, Oregon; troop ship to New Guinea; morale; friendships; off duty leisure time; recreation; movies; reading books; diary of time in the military; invasion of Leyte, Philippines; bomber flew so low over base he could see the pilot; unexploded bomb one morning in a wood pile on Leyte; all outgoing mail was censored; transported form Lingayen Gulf to Japan on LST; installing communication lines in New Guinea, the Philippines, and Japan; return home; farming; recalled for Korean War; sister died from tuberculosis (TB); brother died at age 25; three daughters and one son (who died at 17 in a car accident); mechanic at implement company (1958); used GI Bill for vocational agricultural school; benefits of military; woodworking hobby; travel around US; worked with Forest Rangers in Yosemite National Park and Sequoia National Park installing communication lines.
Doris Holloway Sleath Collection
Collection ID: 20426
Digital content available
Sleath worked as a nurse at the Gila River Relocation Center, Arizona, where she ran the maternity department. She later lived at Manzanar Relocation Center, California, and Tule Lake Relocation Center, California, where her husband, Dr. Jack Sleath, worked as a doctor.
BOX CD/DVD-15 Video Interview with Doris Holloway Sleath, April 9, 2004
47 minutes
MV01: Topics covered include: San Francisco before the attack on Pearl Harbor; radio report of attack; fear in California of invasion; Gila River Relocation Center, Arizona, early medical situation; Japanese American reaction to detention center; Japanese American doctors; setting up the hospital, facilities and staff; maternity ward with help from Japanese Americans; Valley Fever; training of Japanese Americans in hospital and office skills; employment of Japanese Americans; medical department philosophy; Manzanar Relocation Center, California; medical story at Manzanar Relocation Center; medical story at Gila River; kindness shown by Japanese Americans; Caucasian support of Japanese American situation; Tule Lake Relocation Center, California; Japanese American protest at Tule Lake; Tule Lake revisited in the middle 1970s.
BOX-FOLDER MSS-722/1 Transcript, April 9, 2004
1 folder
MS01: Transcript of MV01.
BOX-FOLDER MSS-722/2 Photographs, 2003
1 folder
PH01: Two clothing items made by Japanese Americans at Gila River Relocation Center, Arizona [2003].
PH02: Jacket made by Japanese Americans at Gila River Relocation Center, Arizona [2003].
PH03: Jacket made by Japanese Americans at Gila River Relocation Center, Arizona [2003].
PH04: A wood tray made by the father of Sadako Sameshima for Dr. Jack C. Sleath in appreciation for saving his daughter's life in Manzanar Relocation Center, California [2003].
PH05: The back of a wood tray made by the father of Sadako Sameshima for Dr. Jack C. Sleath in appreciation for saving his daughter's life in Manzanar Relocation Center, California [2003].
PH06: A red knitted gored skirt made by a young Japanese girl for Janet, daughter of Doris Sleath, Tule Lake Relocation Center, California [2003].
PH07: A white stuffed lamb given to Janet Sleath by a Japanese American druggist in hospital, Tule Lake Relocation Center, California [2003].
PH08: A Western Union telegram sent to Doris Sleath informing her of her appointment to Graduate Nurse at Gila River Relocation Center, Arizona, and a black and white portrait of Doris Sleath, [2003].
PH09: Dr. Jack Sleath's application to the Office of Emergency Management.
PH10: Dr. Jack Sleath's application to the Office of Emergency Management.
Jack Crisp Sleath Collection
Collection ID: 20438
Sleath worked as a Chief Medical Officer and was stationed at Gila River Relocation Center, Arizona; Tule Lake Relocation Center, California, and Manzanar Relocation Center, California, as well as in Washington DC.
BOX-FOLDER MSS-722 Memoirs, undated
1 folder
MS01: Overview of the War Relocation Authority (WRA) and Sleath's personal experience as a WRA doctor. Topics covered include: Rejected by Navy, seeking work in another government agency; reporting to work at Gila River Relocation Center, Arizona; construction of Gila River Relocation Center, Arizona; Valley Fever; setting up a first aid station; arrival of formerly incarcerated people; supplies; wondering if patients and their families would trust him, if he would be resented, hated; conditions at local hospital; treating a patient with a ruptured appendix; public health hazards; overcrowded facilities; opening of 250 bed hospital; treating Caucasian personnel; well-trained medical personnel relocated to other parts of the country; taking position as project medical director at Tule Lake; gaining the trust of medical personnel at Tule Lake Relocation Center, California; anti-American sentiment of formerly incarcerated people; psychiatric treatments; formerly incarcerated people raised funds to buy medical equipment; treating a patient shot by military police; formerly incarcerated people on hunger strike.

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