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Transcripts from the Gerald S. and Deborah H. Strober oral history collection, 1989-1996

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Transcripts of oral history interviews of the Ronald W. Reagan Presidency, 1995-1996 (continued)
Oral history interview with Fawn Hall, 1996-06-30 (continued)
Hall discusses her hire as secretary for Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North; the U.S. invasion of Grenada; the Crisis Management Center used by second-tier Federal officials for monitoring world events; North's character and Hall's relationship with him; North's involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair and his eventual firing by the President Ronald Reagan administration over charges of misconduct; North's desire for reassignment out of the National Security Council (NSC); North's relationship with Vice President George H. W. Bush; Hall's involvement in the shredding of documents related to the Iran-Contra dealings; her interview by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI); and Hall's subsequent notoriety as a result of her involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair.
BOX-FOLDER 5/33 Oral history interview with Arthur Hartman, 1996-04-30
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on April 30, 1996 ; recorded at New York City, New York.
Hartman was U.S. Ambassador to France, 1977-1981, and U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union, 1981-1987.
Hartman discusses the consequences of U.S. President Ronald Reagan's characterization of the Soviet Union as an "evil empire" on U.S.-Soviet relations; the United States' military buildup and the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI); Foreign Minister of the Soviet Union Eduard Amvrosievich Shevardnadze, Soviet dissident leader Andrei Sakharov and General Secretary of the Communist Party Mikhail Gorbachev; American journalist and accused spy for the United States against the Soviet Union Nicholas Daniloff; the Reykjavik summit meeting between Reagan and Gorbachev; and U.S. Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North.
BOX-FOLDER 5/34 Oral history interview with Charles Hill, 1996-02-13
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on February 13, 1996 ; recorded at New York City, New York.
Hill was director of Israel and Arab-Israeli affairs, U.S. Dept. of State, 1981-1982; U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for the Middle East, 1982-1983; executive secretary, U.S. Department of State, 1983-1985; and executive assistant to U.S. Secretary of State George Pratt Shultz, 1985-1989.
Hill discusses U.S. Secretaries of State Alexander Haig and George Pratt Shultz; anti-Soviet Union mentality within the President Ronald Reagan administration; the Iran-Contra Affair; the revolving door of the office of Assistant Secretary for Inter-American Affairs, successively held by Thomas Enders, Langhorne Motley, and Elliott Abrams; the war between Israel and Lebanon; the U.S. invasion of Grenada; and the Reykjavik, Iceland summit meeting between Reagan and the Soviet Union's General Secretary of the Communist Party Mikhail Gorbachev.
BOX-FOLDER 5/35 Oral history interview with Geoffrey Howe, 1996-03-18
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on March 18, 1996 ; recorded at London, England.
Howe was Great Britian's Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1979-1983, and Secretary of State for Foriegn and Commonwealth Affairs, 1983-1989.
Howe discusses his impressions of U.S. President Ronald Reagan; the relationship between Reagan and Prime Minister of Great Britain Margaret Thatcher; British reaction to the 1983 U.S. invasion of Grenada; the 1986 U.S. bombing of Libya; the summit meeting at Chequers, England between Thatcher and the Soviet Union's General Secretary of the Communist Party Mikhail Gorbachev; European leaders' concerns over the strength of the pro-Israel lobby in the United States; and the summit meeting at Reykjavik, Iceland between Reagan and Gorbachev.
BOX-FOLDER 5/36 Oral history interview with Max Hugel, 1995-08-28
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on August 28, 1995 ; recorded at Salem, New Hampshire.
Hugel was a campaign aide for Ronald Reagan's 1980 Presidential election campaign, and was Deputy Director for Operations in the U.S Central Intelligence Agency, May 11 - July 14, 1981, resigning the latter position over allegations of past stock market fraud.
Hugel discusses Ronald Reagan's 1980 Presidential election campaign and U.S. Director of Central Intelligence William Casey.
BOX-FOLDER 5/37 Oral history interview with King Hussein, 1995-06-25
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on June 25, 1995 ; recorded at Amman, Jordan.
Hussein was King of Jordan, 1952-1999.
Hussein discusses U.S. President Ronald Reagan, conflicts in Lebanon in the 1980s, attempts for peace settlements between Israelis and Palestinians, the Iran-Contra Affair, and U.S.-Soviet Union relations.
BOX-FOLDER 5/38 Oral history interview with John Hutton, 1996-06-05
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on June 5, 1996 ; recorded at Bethesda, Maryland.
Hutton was chief, department of surgery, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 1981; vice Chairman, department of surgery, and chief, division of general surgery with the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 1981 - 1984; assistant physician to U.S. President Ronald Reagan, 1984-1986; and Physician to the President, 1987-1988.
Hutton discusses the medical treatment of U.S. President Ronald Reagan after his wounding by gunshot in March, 1981; First Lady Nancy Reagan's breast cancer and mastectomy; President Reagan's interest in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic; President Reagan's colon cancer surgery; and journalist Bob Woodward's claim that former Director of Central Intelligence William Casey gave the reporter a confession of complicity in the Iran-Contra Affair while Casey was hospitalized following the removal of a brain tumor.
BOX-FOLDER 5/39 Oral history interview with Bernard Ingham, 1996-03-18
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on March 18, 1996 ; recorded at London, England.
Ingham was chief press secretary for Prime Minister of Great Britain Margaret Thatcher, 1979-1990.
Ingham discusses British perceptions of U.S. President Ronald Reagan; the political relationship between Reagan and British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher; the 1983 U.S. invasion of Grenada; the 1986 U.S. bombing of Libya; General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev; the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI); and the Reykjavik, Iceland summit meeting between Reagan and Gorbachev.
BOX-FOLDER 5/40 Oral history interview with David Jacobsen, 1996-08-21
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on August 21, 1996 ; recorded via telephone.
Jacobsen was director of American University of Beirut medical center, Lebanon. He was taken hostage as part of the Lebanon hostage crisis in June 1985 by members of a militia group and held captive for 523 days, being released November 2, 1986.
Jacobsen discusses his capture by members of a Lebanon militia group; the efforts of the President Ronald Reagan administration to support Iran in its war with Iraq to control the influence of the Soviet Union in the Middle East; the bounty put on Jacobsen's head by Libyan leader Muammar Qaddafi, and the efforts by Reagan and U.S. Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North to save him; Jacobsen's release as part of the arms-for-hostages deals that composed the Iran-Contra Affair; the public disclosure of the arms deals in Al Shiraa newspaper on the day of Jacobsen's release; the conditions of Jacobsen's captivity; the Iranian assets frozen by the U.S. government and their importance as motivation for hostage-taking and terrorism acts; the White House Rose Garden press conference held upon Jacobsen's release; and Jacobsen's feelings toward his former captors and toward the Reagan administration officials involved in the Iran-Contra Affair.
BOX-FOLDER 5/41 Oral history interview with Yechiel Kadishai, 1995-06-27
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on June 27, 1995 ; recorded at Tel Aviv, Israel.
Kadishai was director-general of the Israeli Prime Minister's Bureau during the administrations of Menachem Begin and Itzhak Shamir.
Kadishai discusses the policy of the U.S. President Ronald Reagan administration towards Israel; the Israeli bomibing of an Iraqi nuclear reactor in 1981; U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz and Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger; support for Israel by evangelical Christians in the U.S.; the war between Lebanon and Israel that began in 1982; the Sabra and Shatila massacre; and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin's resignation from office in 1983.
BOX-FOLDER 5/42 Oral history interview with Max Kampelman, 1996-02-06
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on February 6, 1996 ; recorded at Washington, D.C.
Kampelman was head of the U.S. delegation to the Madrid, Spain Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), 1980-1983; Ambassador and head of the U.S. delegation to the negotiations with the Soviet Union on nuclear and space arms in Geneva, Switzerland, 1985-1989; and counselor to the U.S. Department of State, 1987-1989.
Kampelman discusses the U.S. President Ronald Reagan administration's polict toward Israel; the Madrid Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE); U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz; Reagan's character and leadership style; and negotiations with the Soviet Union over nuclear weapons and the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI).
BOX-FOLDER 5/43 Oral history interview with Geoffrey Kemp, 1996-01-24
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on January 24, 1996 ; recorded at Washington D.C.
Kemp was Special Assistant to the President for national security affairs, 1981-1985.
Kemp discusses First Lady Nancy Reagan; the President Ronald Reagan administration's foreign policy officials; Reagan's management style; the structure of the U.S. National Security Council (NSC); Reagan's relationship with foreign leaders, including King Hussein of Jordan and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi; crises in the Middle East during the Reagan administration; African-American civil rights activist Jesse Jackson; the Iran-Iraq and the Israel-Lebanon wars of the 1980s; relations with Israeli leaders and U.S. Secretary of State George Pratt Shultz's relationship with the American Jewish community; the Israeli bombing of an Iraqi nuclear reactor; the 1981 Israeli elections; the Sabra and Shatila massacres; the sale of military aircraft to Saudi Arabia; former U.S. President Jimmy Carter's criticism of Reagan's excessive familiarity with world leaders; the Iran-Contra Affair; and the legacy of the Reagan administration.
BOX-FOLDER 5/44 Oral history interview with Adnan Khashoggi, 1996-05-23
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on May 23, 1996 ; recorded at Paris, France.
Khashoggi was a private businessman who acted as a middleman in the arms-for-hostages deals that formed part of the Iran-Contra Affair. In 1988, he was extradited to the United States to be tried on charges of concealing funds in connection with the arms sales, for which he was eventually acquitted.
Khashoggi discusses the sale of Airborne Warning And Control System (AWACS) aircraft to Saudi Arabia by the United States; U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his plan for peace in the Middle East; Khashoggi's own plans for peace; his meetings with Iranian arms dealer Manucher Ghorbanifar; the arms-for-hostages negotiations between Iran, Israel and the United States; and the Iran-Contra Affair.
BOX-FOLDER 5/45 Oral history interview with David Kimche, 1996-03-28
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on March 28, 1996 ; recorded at Tel Aviv, Israel.
Kimche was director-general of the Israeli foreign ministry, 1980-1987, chief Israeli delegate to the December 1982 trilateral negotiations with Lebanon and the United States following Israel's invasion of Lebanon, and acted as a liaison to U.S. President Ronald Reagan's administration during the arms-for-hostages negotiations with Iran during 1985.
Kimche discusses his mission to contact U.S. leaders about the possibility of negotiating with Iranian leaders through arms dealer Manucher Ghorbanifar; dealing with various factions within the administration of U.S. President Ronald Reagan; and the motivations within the U.S. and Israel for negotiating with the Iranians.
BOX-FOLDER 5/46 Oral history interview with Jeane Kirkpatrick, 1996-02-08
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on February 8, 1996 ; recorded at Washington, D.C.
Kirkpatrick was U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, 1981-1985.
Kirkpatrick discusses her appointment as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations; her relationship with U.S. Secretaries of State Alexander Haig and George Pratt Shultz; debates within the National Security Council (NSC); and the Iran-Contra affair.
BOX-FOLDER 5/47 Oral history interview with C. Everett Koop, 1996-10-22
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on October 22, 1996 ; recorded via telephone.
Koop was U.S. Surgeon General, 1982-1989.
Koop discusses his appointment as U.S. Surgeon General; the Senate confirmation hearings, including concerns over Koop's anti-abortion position; combating the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, and the resistance Koop faced from the President Ronald Reagan administration for making it a public issue; other behavioral public health issues including tobacco smoking, obesity, and alcohol consumption; Koop's access to Reagan; and Reagan's Alzheimer's disease.
BOX-FOLDER 5/48 Oral history interview with Larry Kramer, 1996-10-09
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on October 9, 1996 ; recorded at New York City, New York.
Kramer was a writer, film producer, and activist for homosexual rights and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) awareness. He cofounded the Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC) in 1982 and the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) in 1987 to provide services for sufferers of AIDS and to raise awareness. Kramer wrote Just Say No, A Play about a Farce in 1988 as a satirical critique of the President Ronald Reagan administration's response to the AIDS epidemic.
Kramer discusses Ron Reagan, son of U.S. President Ronald Reagan; First Lady Nancy Reagan's sexual reputation; the President and First Lady's public stance on gay rights issues; and dealing with officials from the administrations of President Reagan and New York City Mayor Ed Koch, particularly White House domestic policy advisor Gary Bauer, over raising public awareness of the Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) health crisis.
BOX-FOLDER 5/49 Oral history interview with Michael Ledeen, 1996-03-12
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on March 12, 1996 ; recorded at Washington, D.C.
Ledeen was a special advisor to U.S. Secretary of State Alexander Haig, 1981-1982, and a consultant to the Office of the U.S. Secretary of Defense, the Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs, and the U.S. National Security Advisor, 1982-1986.
Ledeen discusses the 1985 hijacking of the passenger liner MS Achille Lauro; U.S. National Security Council officers Oliver North and Robert McFarlane and their involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair; Iranian arms dealer and arms-for-hostages contact Manucher Ghorbanifar; accused spy Jonathan Pollard; moderate factions in Iran; and the Iran-Contra Affair investigations.
BOX-FOLDER 6/1 Oral history interview with Suzanne Massie, 1996-10-18
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on October 18, 1996 ; recorded at New York City, New York.
Massie was an author of several books on Russia who became an unofficial consultant to U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1984 to the end of his Presidency.
Massie discusses patriotism and loyalty; her pro-Russia, anti-Soviet Union geopolitical positions; the circumstances of how she became an unofficial advisor to U.S. President Ronald Reagan on U.S.-Soviet relations; her lunchtime advisory meetings with President Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan; and summit meetings between U.S. and Soviet leaders.
BOX-FOLDER 6/2 Oral history interview with Jack Matlock, 1996-03-01
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on March 1, 1996 ; recorded at New York City, New York.
Matlock was a career U.S. Foreign Service officer, 1956-1991, charge d'affaires of the U.S. embassy in the Soviet Union, 1981, U.S. Ambassador to Czechoslovakia, 1981-1983, Special Assistant to the President and senior director of European and Soviet Affairs within the U.S. National Security Council, 1983-1987, and the penultimate U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union, 1987-1991.
Matlock discusses his appointment to the U.S. National Security Council to develop a negotiating plan for the Soviet Union; U.S. President Ronald Reagan's policy for encouraging reform in the Soviet Union; Reagan's proposal to eliminate nuclear weapons at the U.S.-Soviet summit meeting in Reyjavik, Iceland; the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as a negotiating tactic; Reagan's decision to leave early from the Reykjavik summit; the influence of First Lady Nancy Reagan and her personal astrologer on the President's policymaking; and the working relationship between U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze.
BOX-FOLDER 6/3 Oral history interview with Robert McFarlane, 1995-10-26
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on October 26, 1995 ; recorded at Washington, D.C.
McFarlane was Counselor to the U.S. Department of State, 1981-1982, Deputy National Security Advisor, 1982-1983, and U.S. National Security Advisor, 1983-1985.
BOX-FOLDER 6/4 Oral history interview with Edwin Meese, 1996-01-30 , 1996-02-05
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on January 30 and February 5, 1996 ; recorded at Washington, D.C.
Meese was a member of California Governor Ronald Reagan's staff, serving as legal affairs secretary, 1967-1968, and executive assistant and chief of staff, 1969-1974; chief of staff of Reagan's 1980 Presidential election campaign; Counselor to the President for Policy, with Cabinet rank, 1981-1985; and U.S. Attorney General, 1985-1988. He resigned the latter office due to allegations of misconduct in the awarding of government contracts as part of the Wedtech Corporation scandal.
Meese discusses California Governor Ronald Reagan's position on campus anti-war protests during the 1960's; Reagan's 1980 Presidential election campaign; the search for a Republican Vice-Presidential running mate, including former President Gerald R. Ford and rival candidate George H. W. Bush; Reagan's sense of humor and his temper; the selection of Reagan's Cabinet in the first administration; Reagan's reluctance to fire staff; Reagan's preference for using Cabinet officers for policymaking instead of the White House Office; Reagan's relationship with world leaders; the Reagan administration's handling of the AIDS crisis;the Iran-Contra affair and Meese's involvement in the investigation of U.S. National Security Council (NSC) staffer Oliver North; and Reagan's religious views.
BOX-FOLDER 6/5 Oral history interview with Constantine Menges, 1996-01-23
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on January 23, 1996 ; recorded at Washington, D.C.
Menges was a national intelligence officer for Latin American affairs at the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 1981-1983; special assistant to the President on the staff of the National Security Council, 1983-1986; and author of the memoir Inside the National Security Council, 1988.
Menges discusses the President Ronald Reagan administration's foreign policy apparatus; its Latin American policy, particularly Nicaragua; policymaking conflicts between Reagan's White House staff and the U.S. State Department; National Security Council (NSC) staff member Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North; North's involvement in the Iran-Contra affair; and Director of Central Intelligence William Casey.
BOX-FOLDER 6/6 Oral history interview with Joseph Metcalf, 1995-08-16
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on August 16, 1995 ; recorded at Washington, D.C.
Metcalf was a Vice Admiral in the U.S. Navy and commander of the U.S. Second Fleet in the Atlantic Ocean. In this capacity, he was placed in charge of Operation Urgent Fury, the 1983 U.S. invasion of Grenada, and given 39 hours to implement the operation. He was later made Vice Chief of Staff of Naval Operations. In 1985, he received a nonpunitive warning after it was revealed that he had attempted to import 24 captured AK-47 assault rifles as souvenirs.
Metcalf discusses the 1983 U.S. invasion of Grenada; political requirements to limit casualties in carrying out the military operation; tactical operations in the invasion; and problems in U.S. policy toward Grenada.
BOX-FOLDER 6/7 Oral history interview with Keith Mitchell, 1995-09-01
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on September 1, 1995 ; recorded in Grenada.
Mitchell was a math instructor at Howard University in Washington, D.C., 1977-1983, a member of the House of Representatives of Grenada from 1984 onwards, and the Minister of Works, Communications and Public Utilities, 1984-1989.
Mitchell discusses the reasons behind the 1983 American intervention in Grenada, and support for the intervention within the United States and Grenada.
BOX-FOLDER 6/8 Oral history interview with Langhorne Motley, 1995-10-10
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on October 10, 1995 ; recorded at Washington, D.C.
Motley was U.S. Ambassador to Brazil, 1981-1983, and Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, 1983-1985.
Motley discusses President Ronald Reagan's understanding of Latin American issues; U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz; the 1983 U.S. intervention in Grenada; National Security Council (NSC) staff member Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North's role in operational planning; relations with the United Kingdom over the Grenada invasion; the 1984 mining of Nicaraguan harbors by the United States; and the civil war between Contra and Sandinista forces in Nicaragua.
BOX-FOLDER 6/9 Oral history interview with Richard Murphy, 1996-02-01
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on February 1, 1996 ; recorded at New York City, New York.
Murphy was U.S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia, 1981-1983, and U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, 1983-1989.
Murphy discusses Saudi Arabia's positions on the peace process between the Israelis and the Palestinians and surrounding Arab nations; U.S. President Ronald Reagan's concerns about violence in the Middle East; and National Security Council (NSC) staffer Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North's role in the Iran-Contra affair.
BOX-FOLDER 6/10 Oral history interview with Jackob Nimrodi and Uri Dan, 1996-03-26
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on March 26, 1996 ; recorded at Nimrodi's home in Savyon, Israel.
Nimrodi was a former Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) military attache for the Israel Embassy in Teheran, Iran who returned to Teheran after his retirement from the military to act as a middleman in arms sales, inlcuding the early stages of the arms-for-hostages negotiations between Iran, Israel and the United States that became part of the Iran-Contra Affair. Dan was an Israeli journalist who contributed to numerous Israeli publications and also acted as the Israel correspondent for the New York Times. At the time of this interview, he was working on a biography of Nimrodi and was stopping by the latter's home for a visit and joined the interview in process.
Nimrodi discusses working with Saudi Arabian businessman Adnan Khashoggi and Iranian arms dealer Manucher Ghorbanifar to broker the arms-for-hostages negotiations between Israel and Iran; Israeli counterterrorism expert Amiram Nir's role in the negotatiations and his mysterious death in 1988; an incident where antiquated missiles were supplied to the Iranians in lieu of new weapons, which nearly brought the arms-for-hostages deals to an end, and was used by Nir to push Nimrodi and Khashoggi out of the negotiation process; and the diversion of profits from the arms sales to provide aid for the Contra rebels in Nicaragua. Dan discusses Nimrodi's lifetime of experience in dealing with Iranians.
BOX-FOLDER 6/11 Oral history interview with Lyn Nofziger, 1995-11-28
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on November 28, 1995 ; recorded at Savyon, Israel.
Nofziger was press secretary for Ronald Reagan's 1966 California gubernatorial campaign; Governor Reagan's director of communications; deputy chair of finance and press secretary for Reagan's U.S. Presidential election campaign, 1979-1980; Assistant to the President for Political Affairs, 1981; and senior advisor to Reagan's 1984 re-election campaign. In 1987, Nofziger was indicted in the Wedtech scandal for allegedly lobbying his former Federal office on behalf of the Wedtech corporation, but his conviction was later overturned.
Nofziger discusses U.S. President Ronald Reagan's personality and intellectual capacity; the role of unofficial advisors in policymaking, including Reagan's "kitchen cabinet" and First Lady Nancy Reagan; John Sears, the original director of Reagan's 1980 Presidential election campaign, and his replacement William Casey; factions within Reagan's staff; the selection of George H. W. Bush as Reagan's Vice-Presidential running mate; the election debates between Reagan and President Jimmy Carter in the 1980 campaign; and Reagan's legacy as President.
BOX-FOLDER 6/12 Oral history interview with Manuel Antonio Noriega, 1995-08-30
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on August 30, 1995 ; recorded at the Federal Correctional Institution, Miami (FCI Miami), Florida.
Noriega was an alleged operative of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 1970-1976 and beginning again in 1981; chief of the intelligence unit of Panama's National Guard; and commanding general of the Panamanian Defense Forces and military leader of Panama, 1983-1989. He was taken prisoner as a result of the December 1989 U.S. invasion of Panama and subsequently convicted of drug trafficking, racketeering and money laundering in U.S. Federal court in April 1992.
Noriega discusses his work for the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) providing a communications link with Cuba; his relationship with former CIA Director and U.S. Vice President George H. W. Bush, CIA Director William Casey, and National Security Council (NSC) staff member Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North; U.S. involvement in the civil war between Contra and Sandinista forces in Nicaragua, and Noriega's refusal to commit Panamanian support to an incursion or to otherwise undermine the Nicaraguan government; the 1983 U.S. invasion of Grenada; Noriega's reasons for refusing the administration of U.S. President Ronald Reagan's offer of amnesty on drug trafficking charges if Noriega resigned his leadership of Panama; and the 1989 U.S. invasion of Panama conducted by the President George H. W. Bush administration which resulted in Noriega's capture and imprisonment.
BOX-FOLDER 6/13 Oral history interview with Oliver North, 1996-06-05
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on June 5, 1996 ; recorded at Sterling, Virginia.
North was an officer in the United States Marine Corps, 1968-1988, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel; lobbyist for the U.S. National Security Council (NSC), 1981-1983, and a specialist in counter-terrorism for the NSC's defense policies group, 1983-1986. He was dismissed from the NSC in 1986 after disclosure of the arms-for-hostages sales to Iran. In 1987, he was summoned to present nationally televised testimony to a joint committee of Congress investigating the Iran-Contra Affair. In 1988, he was indicted on 16 felony counts in connection with the affair, and was convicted in 1989 of accepting an illegal gratuity, aiding and abetting in the obstruction of a congressional inquiry, and destruction of Federal documents. In 1990, his conviction was overturned on grounds that his testimony to Congress was immunized.
North discusses his reluctance to accept his assignment to serve as a U.S. Marines officer on detail to the U.S. National Security Council (NSC); his initial NSC assignment to form contingency plans to insure civillian control of the military in the event of a crisis; the involvement of North and U.S. Vice President Oliver North in planning for the 1983 U.S. intervention in Grenada; North's involvement in planning the 1986 bombing of Libya and alleged attempts of retaliation by the Libyan government against him; the 1985 terrorist hijacking of the Achille Lauro cruise ship; U.S. support for the Contra rebels in Nicaragua; North's initial objections to the arms-for-hostages negotiations with Iran to secure the release of captured Americans; U.S. President Ronald Reagan's personal compassion for the plight of the American hostages; North's involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair, including the diversion of the funds from arms sales to Iran to provide aid to the Contras; his personification as a central figure in the Iran-Contra dealings; the roles of Director of Central Intelligence William Casey and National Security Advisor John Poindexter in the Iran-Contra Affair; and the legacy of the Reagan administration.
BOX-FOLDER 6/14 Oral history interview with Nimrod Novick, 1996-05-15
Interview conducted by Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober on May 15, 1996 ; recorded at Ra'ananah, Israel.
Novick was senior political advisor for Shimon Peres during the latter's years as first Prime Minister and then Foreign Minister of Israel, 1984-1988.
Novick discusses the Israeli government officials' perceptions of American leaders such as U.S. President Ronald Reagan, Secretary of State George Shultz, and Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger; convicted Israeli spy Jonathan Jay Pollard; the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI); Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres' meeting with U.S. State Department Special Adviser Michael Ledeen; the arms-for-hostages negotiations between the United States, Israel and Iran; Peres' counterterrorism advisor Amiram Nir; Nir's briefing with U.S. Vice President George H. W. Bush; conspiracy theories surrounding Nir's death in a plane crash; Nir's relationship with American counterpart Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North; and the Arab-Israeli peace process.
BOX-FOLDER 6/15 Oral history interview with Pavel Palazhchenko, 1995-07-31
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